words - words - words

All translations by Maarten van der Heijden.


"I always knew that I was Jewish, but that fact had untill about my five fortieths year little meaning to me. About Judaism and about the war at home there was no talking. And in terms of faith, we were 'nothing'. When I was 45 years, I ended up in a - what belated - midlife crisis: job gone, wife gone, everything totally uncertain. I needed support, love and hope. And then I realized, well I can go to the Baghwan, but I am Jewish, so why not go and explore what Judaism has to offer me? My search for my Jewish roots began with a course on Jewish Spirituality with Carola de Vries Robles and a course in Jewish History with Andreas Burnier, and ended, via double-bass playing in a klezmer group and attending various rabbinical lern-groups, with a second-generation support group at the Jewish Social Work on the impact of the Holocaust. Finally, in November 2001, I made a trip to Auschwitz (and back!) with the Auschwitz Committee. I was speechless and I was beaten utterly perplexed: the history of Judaism appeared at the same time outrageously and clamant beautiful (the Talmud and Jewish mystical traditions) and also inconceivable awful (the horror of the Holocaust). This was for my narrow little shoulders almost unbearable. And I thought: I have to do something with this; how can I do something with these vehement and contradictory feelings? My answer was: that is only possible by means of VISUAL ART."

Maarten van der Heijden (2010). Sublime sublimation of the shoah? Thesis, Gerrit Rietveld Academy, Amsterdam (p.5)

"From a personal need to come to terms with the most violent period of the last century: the Holocaust, Maarten has studied and needed to acquire many visual languages. Because, how one packs that horror? His method of giving atrocity another face by using computer generated kaleidoscopic images, beauty and aesthetics, is brave. This ambivalence, both perverse and sublime, has produced relevant images which did not exist before.
In Maarten’s art, in the end the theme is not the Holocaust, but ultimately the incompatibility of horror and aesthetics."

Ken Zeph, Pieter Kusters, & Manel Esparbé i Gasca (11.07.2010). Final Report Maarten van der Heijden, Gerrit Rietveld Academy, Amsterdam



“Ich beartbeite nie dramatische Bilder. Da hätte ich Scheu, das wäre mir peinlich, damit würde ich nicht spielen, das wäre obszön.”

Christian Boltanski (1991).
Inventar. Hamburg: Hamburger Kunsthalle (p.72)



“Nothing I have seen – in photographs or in real life – ever cut me as sharply, deeply, instantaneously. Indeed, it seem plausible to me to divide my life into two parts, before I saw those photographs (I was twelve) and after ... When I looked at those photographs, something broke. Some limit had been reached, and not only that of horror; I felt irrevocably grieved, wounded, but part of my feelings started to tighten; something went dead; something is still crying.”

Susan Sontag (1977). On Photography. London: Penguin Books (p.20)



“In trauma’s aftermath, preferring the comforts of enchantment, we hide, avoid, and cover up the wound. We deny that anything happened. Or we blindly repeat the missing of the encounter, rehearsing its nonoccurence and calling it back for reenactment again and again. [. . .] So we refuse our traumas and thereby remain in their power. Or we succumb to their pathos and make a home of melancholy. Or we mourn them and learn to accept that we must now be different. (p.2) [. . .] The necessity of representation within the work of mourning [. . .] suggests a role of art. (p.6) [. . .] Mourning Auschwitz [. . .] can only mean working them through all the way down to the structural barbarism that made them possible (p.17).”

Gene Ray (2005). Terror and the sublime in art and critical theory – From Auschwitz to Hiroshima to September 11. New York: Palmgrave Macmillan

“Is it possible to make art about the shoah? The question was asked immediately after the war. Especially after the famous statement of the German philosopher Theodor Adorno that ‘writing poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric.’ But art is not only aesthetics. Art also confronts us with questions. And art can offer consolation. Therefore, Adorno's statement is still meaningful while simultaneously beautiful poetry, great novels and impressive paintings are created with the Shoah as a starting point."

Tamarah Benima (2010). In: New Israelitic Weekly, 23, 19 March 2010, (p.31)



“Der Krieg, die Tatsache, Jude zu sein, waren für mich die bestimmende Dinge in meinem Leben. Und das, ohne den Krieg miterlebt zu haben und ohne wirklich Jude zu sein. Ich bin eher ein Kind der Shoah als des Judentums. Aber selbst wenn ich mich davon distanziere [. . .] ist es dennoch das entscheidende Ereignis, das mein Leben komplett bestimmt hat. Ich halte es für ein derart außerordentliches Ereignis, so unverständlich, dass man mit diesem Wissen nicht leben kann wie davor. [. . .] In gewisser Weise habe ich mich von der Shoah nie erholt.”

Christian Boltanski (2009).
In: C. Boltanski & C. Grenier: Das mögliche Leben des Christian Boltanski. Köln: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König(p.23)





"Contrary to the received idea, we are not saturated with images, but subjected to the lack of certain images, which must be produced to fill in the blanks of the official image of the community."

Nicolas Bourriaud (2005). Postproduction. New York: Lukas & Sternberg



“It would be awful and disgusting to make a piece using dead Jews.”

Christian Boltanski (1997). In: Semin, D., T. Garb, & D. Kuspit (1997). Christian Boltanski. London: Phaidon (p.30)

"As a member of the second generation you do not have the direct experience of persecution and loss, but you do carry all the images of the Shoah with you. One has to do something with it. If you do not, you have two options, either you are insufferably shallow, or you go crazy. Neither are attractive options.”

Tamarah Benima (2010).
In: New Israelitic Weekly, 23, 19 March 2010 (p.31)



"It cannot be denied that Boltanski is turning the past - specifically, the past of the Holocaust - into something that suggest the sublime, that recedes into absence when we try to grasp it. By failing to domesticate the past, he presents the very opposite of a well-ordered and understood image of history."

Ernst van Alphen (1997).
Caught by history - Holocaust effects in contemporary art, literature, and theory. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press (p.122)



“The spectacle not only aroused feelings of anxiety and horror but were actually indigestible and unbearable. Its repulsive character may have been the main reason why the original images – apart from iconic pictures and short fragments, for example in Stanley Kramer’s Judgement at Nuremberg (1961) – have largely disappeared from the public domain. NUIT ET BROUILLARD seems to have functioned as the sole carrier of the early, shocking imagery of the camps, while Margarethe von Trotta was one of the last directors to show a lengthy segment of this material. [. . .] They are seldom shown to the general public anymore, and similar photographs and stills are sparingly used in books, magazines, and newspapers, even in studies about the death camps. The question at stake here is, why have these images almost completely disappeared from circulation, why they are safely tucked away from public gaze, while they were and still are considered to be so impressive?”

Frank van Vree (2010).
Indigestible images - On the ethics and limits of representation.    In: K. Tilmans, F. Van Vree, & J. Winter (2010): Memory, history and identity in modern Europe. Amsterdam: University Press (p.278)



"Despite disagreements, the debate about Holocaust representations has been strikingly unanimous on one point: the survivors of the Holocaust and successive generations have a special responsibility to keep the historical events alive."

Ernst van Alphen (1997). Caught by history - Holocaust effects in contemporary art, literature, and theory. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press (p.93)

“‘In the differend’, Lyotard explains, ‘something “asks” to be put into phrases and suffers from the wrong of not being able to be put into phrases right away’ (Lyotard, 1988, p.13). An event such as the Holocaust is a case in point. All attempts to give voice to this event necessarily fail since, at present, no idiom exists by which to do justice. In terms of the sublime, the pain of the Holocaust is such that it exeeds our ability to supply a concept (p. 88).Yet, Lyotard argues, the surrounding silence functions as a sign that ‘something remains to be phrased . . . which is not determined’ (p.57). [. . .] To do justice to the Holocaust, therefore, one must phrase the event in such a way that it remains open to future determination since to do otherwise would be to assume that one has already understood the event and thus consumed it as an object of knowledge.”

Philip Shaw (2006).
The sublime. London: Routledge (p.128)

 “the Sublime - Theory of art put forward  by Edmund Burke in A philosophical     Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful published in 1757. He defined the Sublime as an artistic effect productive of the strongest emotion the mind is capable of feeling [. . .] The notion that a legitimate function of art can be to produce upsetting or disturbing effects was an important element in Romantic art and remains fundamental to art today.”

Simon Wilson & Jessica Lack (2008). The tate guide to modern art terms. London: Tate Publishing (p.205)


“The more Auschwitz is mouthed and invoked, the further into oblivion it recedes. [. . .] In traditional bourgeois aesthetics, the feelings nearest to what we now associate with trauma went by the name of the sublime. [. . .] These essays propose that the sublime and its reception are disruptions through which art can link up with and modestly effect practices of daily life.”

Gene Ray (2005). Terror and the sublime in art and critical theory – From Auschwitz to Hiroshima to September 11. New York: Palmgrave Macmillan (p.2-6)

"Gene Ray says: 'At its best, Beuys’s material oevre – the objects and installations that have outlived the artist himself – retains a power to strike, astonish, and disturb us which the biographical and art-historical explanations cannot account. In the history of aesthetics, there is a name for these effects: the sublime.' (Ray, 2005, p.35) 'There is a secret narrative in Beuys, of which no one dares speak. Autobiography is an accepted content for art; the atrocities of Nazi Germany are not.' (Ray, 2005, p.34) And in a rather convincing argument Ray (2005) shows that - notwithstanding Beuys himself in this sense never directly has spoken out - the materials used in the works of Beuys refer to the Holocaust.

According to Ray the (melting) of fat (on a burner) refers to the burning of the bodies of the victims in the crematoria of the death camps. The felt according to Ray refers to the horrible fact that since 1942 the shaved hair of the murdered Jews was processed into felt in German factories. For arguments supporting this interpretation, I refer to the essay by Ray (2005, p.33-49: Joseph Beuys and the "After-Auschwitz" Sublime). Beuys himself has always claimed that the fat and felt that he used in his performances and installations had something to do with the crash he experienced as a Luftwaffe pilot in 1944.

In a discussion on Adorno's plea for 'negative presentation' as the most appropriate strategy in the representation of Auschwitz Ray concludes: 'But there is one thing a German veteran of Beuys’s generation cannot do, it is to appropriate the critical voice of an exiled Jewish intellectual to Frankfurt.' (Ray, 2005, p.44) For me, Ray hits the nail on his hat with these observations: thinking of Beuys' immense art-works of fat and felt I had to cry when reading Ray's Beuys-interpretation."

Maarten van der Heijden (2010). Sublime sublimatiion of the shoah? Thesis, Gerrit Rietveld Academy, Amsterdam (p.26-27); citations from: Gene Ray (2005). Terror and the sublime in art and critical theory - from Auschwitz to Hiroshima to September 11; Palgrave Macmillan.


"The sublime is one of the most inportant topics in contemporary debates about modernity, politics and art”

In: Christine Battersby (2007). The sublime, terror and human difference. London: Routledge (p.III)




"In the art-historical and art-philosophical literature on the sublime there is very much art-theoretical speculation and lack of clarity. Already in 1921 Carl Gustav Jung wrote: 'Aesthetics is by virtue of its whole being applied psychology'. Since 1921 psychology has advanced a lot. Nowdays it is quite possible to research empiracally the sublime effect."

Maarten van der Heijden (2010). Sublime sublimatiion of the shoah? Thesis, Gerrit Rietveld Academy, Amsterdam (p.43)

"Any elements, no matter where they are taken from, can serve in making combinations. [...] Anything can be used. It goes without saying that one is not limited to correcting a work or to integrating diverse fragments of out-of-date works into a new one; one can also alter the meaning of these fragments in any appropriate way, leaving the imbeciles to their slavish presentation of 'citations'."

Guy Debord (1961). 'Methods of detournement' in Situationist International Anthology, Ed. and trans. Ken Knabb. Berkeley: Bureau of public secrets (p.9)



"It seems safe to assume that artworks on the theme of the Holocaust using toys are controversial by definition because of the function automatically attributed to Holocaust art. Unlike other art that can claim autonomy or self-reflexivity, Holocaust art tends to be unreflectively reduced to how it can promote Holocaust education and remembrance. Art, teaching, and remembrance are thus collapsed without any sustained debate about the bond between these three cultural activities."

Ernst van Alphen (2001). In: Playing the Holocaust, in: N.L.Kleeblatt (ed.) Mirroring evil - Nazi imagery / recent art. New York: The Jewish Museum (p.71)



"The more Hitler is equated with absolute evil the more messianic traits he gets."

, in: VPRO-gids nr. 9; 26-02-2011 / 04-03-2011.



"I think that the problem of the hatred and the enmity is as important as a  lifelong love affair. That is a just as intimate relationship between two persons as a love affair is, and this is underestimated."

Hans Keilson, quoted in: NRC Handelsblad, 03-01-2011, p. 17



"Beauty lies in the extension of pain"

Tran Anh Hung. In: NRC, 5 January 2011, p.10

“The artist attempts combinations allowing the event. The art-lover does not experience a simple pleasure, or derive some ethical benefit from his contact with art, but expects an intensification of his conceptual and emotional capacity, an ambivalent enjoyment. [. . .] The secret of an artistic succes, like that of a commercial succes, resides in the balance between what is surprising and what is ‘well-known’, between information and code. This is how innovation in art operates: one re-uses formulae confirmed by previous success, one throws them off balance by combining them with other, in principle incompatible, formulae, by amalgamations, quotations, ornamentations, pastiche. One can go as far as kitsch or the grotesque.”

Jean-François Lyotard (1989). The sublime and the avant-garde. In: A. Benjamin (red.): The Lyotard Reader. Oxford: Blackwell (p.206-210)






“The Lurianic Kabbalah provides a coherent and comprehensive account of the cosmos, and humanity’s role within it, that is intellectually, morally, and spiritually significant for contemporary man. It is my view that the Lurianic Kabbalah provides us with a fundamental mythology or ‘basic metaphor’, which organizes everything around itself in a manner that is strikingly original, illuminating, and vital for us today.”

Sanford L. Drob (2000). Symbols of the kabbalah. Jerusalem: J. Aronson inc.(p.XI)


"Postproduction artists invent new uses for works, including audio or visual forms of the past, within their own constructions. But they also reedit historical or ideological narratives, inserting the elements that compose them into alternative scenarios."

Nicolas Bourriaud (2005). Postproduction. New York: Lukas & Sternberg


"All these artistic practices, although formally heterogeneous, have in common the recourse to already produced forms. They testify to a willingness to inscribe the work of art within a network of signs and significations, instead of considering it an autonomous or original form."

Nicolas Bourriaud (2005). Postproduction. New York: Lukas & Sternberg



“Evil, according to Jewish tradition, is firmly rooted in the very essence of God.” (2000, p.330) “It should, however, be apparent that because the Kelippot (which are sustained by the sparks of divine light that they contain) are the source and substance of both matter and evil, the process of extraction (and thus the very process of Tikkun) requires a sojourn into the realm of evil. [. . .] In a process that is hinted at by the psychoanalytic term ‘sublimation’, the evil impulse in man is placed in the service of Godly commandments, and is ultimately redirected in the service of Tikkun ha-Olam.” (2000, p.380) “The Kabbalists, and especially the Hasidim, affirmed that all meaningful, value-making activity serves the process of Tikkun.” (2000, p.386) “We are now in a position to understand how the Lurianic theosophy is both a theory of human as well as divine creativity. [. . .] In Kabbalistic terms, the completed work becomes one piece in the overall re-creation and restoration of the world, the process of Tikkun ha-Olam.” (2009, p.254-255)

Sanford L. Drob (2000). Symbols of the kabbalah. Jerusalem: J. Aronson inc.
Sanford L. Drob (2009). Kabbalah and postmodernism. New York: Peter Lang


"The story of creation according to the Lurianic Kabbalah

In 1995, in the context of the search for my Jewish roots, I took part in the Jarchei Kallo in Amsterdam, a 'three-day learning festival for people at all levels', organized by Orthodox Jews. In response to my question an age-old Hasidic rabbi from Belgium told the story of creation of Luria. Isaac Luria was a Jewish mystic who lived from 1534 to 1572, a black period in the Eastern European Jewish history, wherein dreadful pogroms took place. The Lurianic story of creation tells of how evil came into the world:

God created the world by forming vessels of light to hold the divine light. But as God poured the light into the vessels, some of them catastrophically shattered, tumbling down toward the realm of matter. Thus, our world consists of countless shards of the original vessels, or Kelippot, entrapping sparks of the divine light. These concealed sparks of light are everywhere even in the evil.  Because of the fact that these sparks of the divine light are estranged from their divine source they form the cause of evil but at the same time the source of ultimate redemption. Humanity’s great task involves helping God  by freeing and reuniting the scattered light, raising the sparks back to divinity and restoring the broken world. This proces of restoring the world is called: Tikkum ha-Olam."

Maarten van der Heijden (2010). De shoa subliem sublimeren? Thesis, Gerrit Rietveld Academy (p.6)


“There’s always a component of anger in beauty.”

Louise Bourgeois (2007).
In: F. Morris (ed.) Louise Bourgeois. London: Tate Publishing (p.56)




"Ludwig Wittgenstein on 'beauty' (1938 lecture): Meanings of words like beauty result from their use. Beauty, he pointed out, is most often used as an interjection, similar to Wow!.”

Bill Beckley (1998).
In B. Beckley & D. Shapiro (eds.). Uncontrollable beauty. New York: Allworth (p.xiv-xv)




"Klezmer (from Yiddish כּלי־זמיר) is a musical tradition of the Ashkenazic Jews of Eastern Europe. Played by professional musicians called klezmorim, the genre consists largely of dance tunes and instrumental display pieces for weddings and other celebrations. Klezmer is easily identifiable by its characteristic expressive melodies, reminiscent of the human voice, complete with laughing and weeping. This is not a coincidence; the style is meant to imitate khazone (the chazzan) and paraliturgical singing. It makes  use of a number of dreydlekh, a Yiddish word for musical ornaments used to produce its characteristic 'tear in the voice' sound."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klezmer 20.11.2010

See also: 'The absolutely complete klezmer songbook', by Yale Strom, 2006.

“[. . .] the contemporary art world is uncomfortable with beauty – a discomfort that seems to me to derive from its irreducibility to other forms of discourse [. . .] The beautiful is powerless but always exceeds what frames it, and what always frames it is discourse.”

Jeremy Gilbert-Rolfe (1998). Beauty and the contemporary sublime. In: B. Beckley & D. Shapiro (eds.) Uncontrollable beauty. New York: Allworth (p.39-41)

“Well, the notion that art might produce implicitly satisfying things that serve to embellish the world or render its contradictions more bearable is simply reactionary, whereas the true essence of art lies precisely in the conflict of concepts and ideas. And that’s beautiful.”

Albert Oelen (1991). In: Albert Oehlen (b.1954) in conversation with Wilfred Dickhoff and Martin Prinzhorn. In: C. Harrison & P. Wood (2007). Art in theory 1900-2000. Oxford: BlackwellPublishing (p.1170)


“Mind and body become indivisible in beauty. [. . .] Beauty is a willing loss of mental control, surrendered to organic process that is momentarily under the direction of an exterior objec. [. . .] There is something crazy about a culture in which the value of beauty becomes controversial. It is crazy not to celebrate whatever reconciles us to life. [. . .] Meanwhile, can there be any possible problem with ‘intense pleasure or deep satisfaction to the mind’? [. . .] For people without the comfort of religion, and even for many who are religious, the experiences may provide a large part of what makes life worth living. Any society that does not respect the reality of ‘intense pleasure and deep satisfaction to the mind’ is a mean society.”

Peter Schjeldahl (1998). Notes on beauty. In: B. Beckley & D. Shapiro (eds.). Uncontrollable beauty. New York: Allworth (p.53-55)


“Art is a privilege, a blessing, a relief [. . .] The privilege was the access to the unconscious. [. . .] It was a privilege also to be able to sublimate. A lot of people cannot sublimate. They have no access to their unconscious. There is something very special in being able to sublimate ... and something very painful in the access to it. But there is no escape ...”

Louise Bourgeois (2007). In: F. Morris (ed.) Louise Bourgeois. London: Tate Publishing (p.48)


“At the beginning of all the work there is a kind of trauma: something happened. [. . .] When I was youger I was very crazy; now I’m very normal. I only do what I do because I used to be crazy. Art for me is one way of talking about problems and about the past; sometimes, as with psychoanalysis, you are a little better for having done so.”

Christian Boltanski (1997). In: D. Semin, T. Garb, & D. Kuspit. Christian Boltanski. London: Phaidon (p.8-9)


“What modern art  means is that you have to keep finding new ways to express yourself, to express the problems, that there are no settled ways, no fixed approach. This is a painful situation, and modern art is about this painful situation of having no absolute definite way of expressing yourself. This is why modern art will continue, because this condition remains: it is the modern human condition . . . it is about the hurt of not being able to express yourself properly, to express your intimate relations, your unconscious, to trust the world enough to express yourself direcly in it. It is about trying to be sane in this situation, of being tentatively and temporarely sane by expressing yourself. All art comes from terrific failures and terrific needs that we have.”

Louise Bourgeois (1998). Statements from an interview with Donald Kuspit. In: C. Harrison & P. Wood (2007). Art in theory 1900-2000. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing (p.1090)


“Was dem Künstler eigen ist, ist – glaube ich – die Möglichkeit, ein eigenes Problem auf einer kollektiven Ebene umzusetzen. Wenn man unglücklich ist, spricht man nicht von seinem eigenen Unglück, sondern vom Unglück an sich, und da ist man schon gar nicht mehr unglücklich. Also, als ich die Kugeln herstellte, sprach ich nicht von meinem Verrücktsein, sondern vom Verrücktsein im allgemeinen. Damals schrieb ich einen Brief, den ich mehrfach verfaßte, 15mal, und an verschiedene Adressen von Filmemachern, Literaten, Sammlern, die ich in der Liste meiner Galerie fand, verschickte. Es ging um einen Typen, der sich aus dem Fenster stürzen wollte. Tatsächlich war ich völlig am Boden, als ich den Brief schrieb. Wenn ich kein Künstler gewesen wäre, sondern einfach nur ganz privat, für mich allein deprimiert gewesen wäre, hätte ich mich auf jeden Fall aus dem Fenster gestürzt. Die 15 Briefe waren eine gute Arbeit. Und ich war gerettet. Die Kunst ist wirklich eine Möglichkeit zu überleben und die Probleme auf eine andere Ebene umzusetzen.”

Christian Boltanski (1991). Inventar. Hamburg: Hamburger Kunsthalle (p.70)


"[1] Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach. [. . .] [7] The value of the work of conceptual art is in its unpredicttability. [. . .] [10] The direction of the concept allows the artist complete freedom - nothing is preordained. [. . .] [13] The inner-vision should be followed. [. . .] [16] Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. [. . .] [22] The conceptual artist does not need to know what he is doing. [. . .] [23] The conceptual artist would deal with what the artist himself would not expect."

Sol LeWitt (1969). In: S. Héman, J. Poot, &  H. Visser, (red.) (2002). Conceptuele kunst in Nederland en België 1965-1975. Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum & Rotterdam: NAi Uitgevers (p.50-58)



"Like politics, the arts-sector in the nineties has lost its ideological fire and it has in a technocratic way clung to dead modernist forms and practices, with as holy grail autonomy and quality. It was grist to the neoliberal mill, resulting in a hysterical artmarket."

Charles Esche. In NRC Handelsblad Cultureel Supplement, 10 December, 2010, p.17






"Now and then there appears something beautiful, something that can not be expressed in words. But it is no longer recognized anymore. One recognizes only the people that are grouping around it. And if there seem to be enough of them, what one sees is called by it's real name: success."

Pieter Frans Thomése (2010). Beautiful is what has success. Delete the rest. In: Opinie & Debat NRC Handelsblad, 6&7 November 2010, p.3

“There’s someone who has a problem and tries to resolve it by making an object, and the person who looks at it has more or less the same problem and is also going to resolve it a little bit while looking at it. [. . .] The artist has to be – and this is a very Romantic idea – someone who resolves his own problems, speaks more or less about himself, and who, as much as this is possible, is able to resolve the problems of others, is able to pose questions to others.”

Christian Boltanski (2009). In: C. Boltanski & H.U. Obrist. Christian Boltanski / Hans Ulrich Obrist.    Köln: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König (p.30)




"I think the big deficit is not due to what ever was spent on art, but to other scandalous causes [. . .] I'm not Dutch, but I hear that here some people say: culture is the entertainment for leftist people. Well, blast it, that's quite an incredibly stupid statement to dare to say something like that."

Philippe Herrweghe. In: Radio 1, Kunststof, 24 November 2010, 19u-20u.

"National Socialism has perished by the delusion of racial doctrine, communism by its delusion of class doctrine, and now the West is shaken to its foundations because it was misled by the delusion of market-ism."

Abram de Swaan. In: Hollands Diep, November/December 2010, p.46

"The administrative and business elites impend to degenerate into one big grab-clique."

Abram de Swaan. In: Hollands Diep, November/December 2010, p.46

"What is new in any case, is the relative unconcern about how minorities are treated. And the relative unconcern about the consequences of this. Such carelessness is for people of my generation difficult to digest. They see it as a prelude to something worse."

Abram de Swaan. In: Hollands Diep, November/December 2010, p.44